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López-Huerta, Blanco-Hernández, Bargas, Galarraga (2012) Presynaptic modulation by somatostatin in the rat neostriatum is altered in a model of parkinsonism Journal of neurophysiology 108(4) 1032-43


Somatostatin (SST) is a peptide synthesized and released by a class of neostriatal local GABAergic interneurons, which, to some extent, are in charge of the feedforward inhibitory circuit. Spiny projection neurons (SPNs) make synapses with each other via their local axon collaterals, shaping the feedback inhibitory circuit. Both inhibitory circuits, feedforward and feedback, are related through SST, which, being released by interneurons, presynaptically inhibits connections among SPNs. Here, we studied SST presynaptic modulation of synapses among SPNs in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rodent model of parkinsonism. We performed antidromic field stimulation from the external globus pallidus and whole cell voltage-clamp recordings of antidromically evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) among SPNs. SST presynaptically reduced IPSCs by ∼34% in all control synapses tested. However, after striatal dopamine deprivation, three changes became evident. First, it was harder to evoke feedback inhibition. Second, presynaptic inhibition of some SPNs connections was larger than in controls: 57% reduction in ∼53% of evoked IPSCs. Presynaptic inhibition was recorded from direct pathway neurons (direct SPNs). Finally, SST also induced presynaptic facilitation in some SPNs connections, with 82% enhancement in ∼43% of evoked IPSCs. Presynaptic facilitation was recorded from indirect pathway neurons (indirect SPNs). Both inhibition and facilitation were accompanied by corresponding changes in the paired pulse ratio. It was demonstrated that after dopamine deprivation, SST modulation is altered in surviving feedback inhibitory synapses. It may underlie a homeostatic mechanism trying to compensate for the excitability imbalance between direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways found during parkinsonism.


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